Zimbabwean communities set the diversity wheel in motion

Paul H. John D. Cochran, Jr.

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Stephen Geiger was driving eastbound on an interstate highway in Indiana when a truck crossed the median from the westbound lanes and struck his car, killing him.

The driver of the truck had lost control when it struck another truck's wheel that is, the tire and rim assembly that, we are required to assume, was upright and rolling in his lane. It was night and no one saw where the wheel came from or even whether it was rolling toward or away from, or possibly at an angle to, the truck that struck it.

It might have come off the axle of a truck in front possibly even in one of the eastbound lanes or have fallen from the back of a truck. Conceivably it had been lying by the highway and was struck by a vehicle and sent spinning. It may even have been rolled into the highway by mischief makers, although this is unlikely because a truck wheel is heavy and the stretch of the highway on which the accident occurred is flat.

State Farm had issued an insurance policy to Geiger that promised to "pay damages for bodily injury an insured is legally entitled to collect from the owner or driver of an uninsured motor vehicle. The bodily injury must be caused by accident arising out of the operation, maintenance or use of an uninsured motor vehicle. Geiger's widow inferred that it had come off a truck whose unknown driver would have been legally liable for the accident to her husband for having allowed the wheel to come off and menace other users of the highway.

So she made a claim under the uninsured-motorist policy, but State Farm refused to pay. She had moved to Louisiana after the death of her husband, together with their two children, and she filed suit on behalf of herself and the children against State Farm in a Louisiana state court to collect under the policy.

The parties being of diverse citizenship and the defendant a nonresident of Louisiana, the suit was removed to a federal district court in Louisiana, then transferred pursuant to 28 U. A jurisdictional question not remarked by the parties or the district judge detains us briefly en route to the merits.

Geiger was a citizen of Illinois, as is State Farm, and under the diversity statute the legal representative of a decedent is deemed to be a citizen of the same state as the decedent was. This provision did not become effective until after this suit was filed, see Pub. Wilsey v. Eddingfield, F.

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The law in the Fifth Circuit was to the contrary, however, Bianca v. Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Division, F. Ferens v. John Deere Co. Barrack, U. Ford Motor Co. Speaking of choice of law, we note that the parties agree that either Indiana or Illinois law governs the substantive issues in this case, and since there is no apparent difference between the pertinent legal doctrines of the two states we needn't decide which state's law to apply.

It would be a little odd if the federal district court in Louisiana had jurisdiction of this suit when it was removed but the federal district court in Indiana to which it was transferred did not.

We need not resolve the issue, because of an oddity of Louisiana law. That law is based on the Code Napoleon, so much of it is odd from a common law perspective.

Louisiana apparently does not regard a decedent's estate as an entity on behalf of which a lawsuit can be brought. Code art.NCBI Bookshelf.

Today, diseases as common as the cold and as rare as Ebola are circling the globe with near telephonic speed, making long-distance connections and intercontinental infections almost as if by satellite. The increasing cross-border and cross-continental movements of people, commodities, vectors, food, capital, and decision-making power that characterize globalization, together with global demographic trends, have enormous potential to affect the emergence and spread of infectious diseases.

This chapter summarizes the workshop presentations and discussions on these various aspects of globalization and their implications for the prevention and control of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The unprecedented volume and speed of human mobility are perhaps the most conspicuous manifestations of the present era of globalization.

From international tourists to war-displaced refugees, more people are on the move than ever before. They are also traveling faster and are regularly visiting what used to be very remote parts of the world. This movement has the potential to change dramatically the factors involved in the transmission of infectious disease.

Of particular concern, over the next 15 years, as the global population continues to grow and economic and social disparities between rich and poor countries intensify, the world will likely continue to witness rapidly growing numbers of migrants in search of employment or a better quality of life. Migrant populations are among the most vulnerable to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and have been implicated as a key causal factor in the global spread of such diseases, most notably multidrug-resistant tuberculosis TB.

Workshop presentations and discussions addressing this increased human mobility and its effect on infectious disease transmission are summarized here; those addressing the need for improved surveillance of mobile populations are reported in Chapter 2.

Just as modern modes of transportation allow more people and products to travel around the world at a faster pace, they also open the airways to the transcontinental movement of infectious disease vectors.

That mosquitoes can cross the ocean by riding in airplane wheel wells is a commonly cited example of this phenomenon and is one of several hypotheses proposed to explain the introduction of West Nile virus into New York City inthe first known incidence of this disease in North America. Beyond such transport of disease vectors, controversial evidence suggests that global warming, much of which is generated by human activities, has caused or is causing changes in vector distributions worldwide and affecting the incidence rates of various tropical infectious diseases, such as malaria and dengue.

This demand for a global food market and the resulting transnational movement of food have important implications for foodborne infectious diseases. The global transport of food also raises concerns about the risk of the emergence of antibiotic resistance in humans. Food-producing animals are often given antibiotic drugs for important therapeutic, disease prevention, or production reasons; however, these drugs can cause microbes to become resistant to drugs used to treat human illness.

Thus, it is useful to examine how the global flow of capital affects emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The most direct effect results from the financing of environmental projects, such as dams and other water or land development efforts, that alter local vector ecologies and increase the potential for human exposure to infectious diseases.

The movement of capital is often accompanied by movements or shifts in decision-making power, another manifestation of globalization with implications for infectious disease transmission. The following sections address in turn each of these aspects of globalization and its implications for the transmission and spread of infectious disease.

A century and a half ago, it took about days to circumnavigate the globe by ship; today it takes less than 36 hours. Thus the incubation period of many infectious diseases is now longer than the time it takes the infected to travel from one location to another.

In the past, infectious disease outbreaks were readily detected on ships as they pulled into port, and the ships were quarantined until the diseases had burned themselves out. Now, should a local outbreak spread silently and globally via an infected traveler or tourist, cases will likely start emerging only days or weeks later in clinics and communities worldwide.Also, the adjustment of components to bring them into a predetermined position for the most efficient operation of wheel and vehicle for proper even tire wear.

It comes into play during cornering. As the car leans in a turn, the anti-roll bar resists this leaning by transferring more weight to the outside tire. Sometimes referred to as a Gymkhana or solo. Also used in enlarged form to stiffen the lower sidewall of a tire. In radial tires, it also constrains the outside diameter against inflation pressure and centrifugal force.

The opposite of lateral or centrifugal force. Sometimes called section width. The balance of a tire and wheel while it is rotating. See Contact patch. Acceleration of one g equals 32 feet per second. In this system, deflection of the wheel on one side has a minimal affect on the wheel on the other side. Under compression, they flatten and expand in length, then rebound to their original arched shape.

A dot or mark on the tire is matched with a dot, a sticker, or the valve hole on the wheel. Tires lose air normally through the process of permeation. Pitch is varied around a tire to minimize noise. Correct Plus 1 or Plus 2 fitments maintain the same tire diameter as the original tires. It is also referred to as the aspect ratio of a tire.

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The Load Index is a numerical code that specifies the maximum load a tire can carry at the speed indicated by its Speed Symbol, at maximum inflation pressure. This is invariably the thickest part of the tire and this gauge directly affects the running temperature of a tire.

Its high stiffness provides good handling and low tread wear. The axis about which the wheel pivots when turned. Mounted on a hub, they permit the spindle to rotate freely with minimum friction. Cause of radial tire pull. See Footprint. Increased load can increase cornering force. View more in.Bare Acts in India - statutes and laws free download.

Bare acts and Case laws in India have been extensively discussed here, the laws pass by the parliament and its implementation in the courts are commonly discussed here in length. Active topics Unanswered topics. Work on or Near machinery in motion. You must login or register to post a reply.

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RSS topic feed. Gazette, prohibit, in any specified factory or class or description of factories, the cleaning, lubricating or adjusting by any person of specified parts of machinery when those parts are in motion. Powered by Legal service Indiasupported by lawyers in India. Skip to forum content Bare Acts in India - statutes and laws free download Bare acts and Case laws in India have been extensively discussed here, the laws pass by the parliament and its implementation in the courts are commonly discussed here in length.

You are not logged in. Please login or register. Pages 1 You must login or register to post a reply. RSS topic feed Posts: 1. Topic: sec Online Copyright Registration Ph no: Online Legal Advice.All over the world we can find positive experiences where family farmers are working to maintain agricultural biodiversity, or are benefitting from it.

zimbabwean communities set the diversity wheel in motion

Here are a four cases where farmers are making a conscious effort to conserve and market diverse crops. It visualises the amount of crop diversity available in a community and the varieties that might be at risk of being lost.

The four cell analysis consists of a matrix, with one axis mapping the number of farmers planting a specified variety and the other the size of the area in which the crop is grown.

This method has gained worldwide recognition. It provides a basis for communities to manage their biodiversity, including seed production, expansion of areas planted with local varieties, breed purification, and processing and marketing of traditional and local food items.

LI-BIRD has worked with over 11, farming households across Nepal, who are now managing their agrobiodiversity better as a result. This generates social, economic and environmental benefits. For example, local aromatic rice varieties such as Tilki and Kalonuniya were about to disappear, but thanks to community seed selection and enhancement, they have become commonly grown varieties and people are now selling them at premium prices. Visit www. Photo: R. Community seed fairs are a valuable opportunity to exchange seeds and knowledge, and to take stock of the status of biodiversity in their communities.

This prompts farmers to discuss why certain varieties are no longer being grown, or why they value a specific variety.

Tire Terminology

It leads them to reflect on how to pro-actively ensure the conservation of varieties at risk. Once all the crops that farmers grow are placed on the Diversity Wheel the farmers find it easy to visualise how their food security and diet composition is evolving.

The Diversity Wheel is a story of partnerships, where good ideas build on each other and travel across continents. The Maputo Earth Market proves that markets and agrobiodiversity can support each other. Traditional leafy vegetables, fruits, street food, fresh vegetables, liquors, jams and more are on display.

In contrast to other urban market places, all the products are local, seasonal, organic or artisanal and all stalls are manned by small-scale family farmers.

Farmers appreciate the market as it enables them to bypass intermediaries and sell their produce directly to consumers. Having a diverse range of seasonal and traditional vegetables and other foods is also valued by consumers.

zimbabwean communities set the diversity wheel in motion

This encourages family farmers to plant a diversity of crops on their farm and maintain local varieties. The market is not merely a purchase point. It is also a meeting place for farmers and consumers. Farmers eagerly talk about how they cultivate their crops. They explain how traditional foods are prepared or delve into the nutritious value of certain foods. In this way local food cultures are shared and maintained.

E-mail: v. Communities have cultivated many different varieties of potato for generations, offering a range of adaptations to different socio-ecological conditions. This brand then certifies that the products were cultivated in highly diverse agro-ecosystems, where indigenous agricultural practices play an important role.

It does not focus so much on the produce itself, but emphasises regional recovery and resilience. Farmers benefi t economically by selling their milk, cheese, native potatoes and fruits in the local market under this name, but are also developing rural tourism services. E-mail: cetchiloe gmail.The bill would also increase the subminimum wage for employees with disabilities, tipped employees and teenagers and until they all equal the general minimum wage.

Since the s, employers were allowed to pay employees with disabilities less than minimum wage, if they obtained 14 c certificates. The Labor Department will no longer be allowed to issue new 14 c certificates and by all current 14 c certificates would be deemed invalid. The future of the Raise the Wage Act remains precautious as it awaits its fate in the Republican-led Senate. Political insiders compared the chances of this bill surviving the Senate to them voting for impeachment. Fear not, supporters of getting rid of subminimum are confident in another bill that is in the pipelines and set to be introduced later this summer.

The Transformation of Competitive Employment Act will also phase out subminimum wage. Outside the beltway, states have already set the wheel in motion to discontinue paying people with disabilities less than the minimum wage.

New Hampshire started this trend inwhich led fellow progressive state Maryland to follow in This year, the city of Reno and the state of Washington joined the fun by passing laws that require states and city agencies to pay employees with disabilities minimum wage. Not all families want subminimum wage to go away. For a lot of employees who have developmental delays, positions that pay subminimum wage might be their only opportunity at holding a job and living a full and productive life.

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The hashtag…. Back inshe led a number of…. Originally published on news. Originally published on pwc. The Assurance Quality Advisory Committee currently consists of these three members who will provide perspectives and advice to Assurance Leadership on aspects of….He is so focused that he can pretend to be conversing with you while he is engaged in a serious thought process.

This inclination to work hard has enabled him to produce Estate Blues, Zimbabwe's third television soap after Amakorokoza and Studio It has run for 21 episodes without sponsorship and in this hyper-inflationary environment this is no mean feat.

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The sponsorship speaks volumes about the pedigree of Estate Blues especially at this time when the corporate world is reluctant to part ways with money in the current harsh economy.

TN Asset Management has set the wheel in motion, showing their love for the community through this sponsorship. It is encouraging to see them believing in the artists that we are," said Maramba while accepting the sponsorship. Estate Blues began in humble beginnings at a hole-in-the-wall studio in Kaguvi Street. At that time the cast was ferried to and from shooting sessions in a rugged pick-up truck. But despite all these adversities the crew remained focused.

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This is a dream which has been transferred into reality through an extraordinary show of dedication and patience which has captured the hearts of the business community," said Maramba. By submitting above, you agree to our privacy policy. But what makes this production so special as to attract some of the best business and law minds in the country?

TN would not have associated itself with this soap had it not been of an outstanding quality," said Tawanda Nyambirai, a board member of TN asset Management. The soap's theme revolves around issues such as corruption, infidelity, social injustice, nepotism, love and hatred.

zimbabwean communities set the diversity wheel in motion

It touches on various issues that bedevil an aristocratic homestead known as the Temberas. This wish is not in any way far-fetched. The producer of the soap, Admire Maramba, is determined to pull through. He has been exposed to the American film production system. Estate Blue's debut on television was hardly noticed but after 22 episodes its impact on society is beginning to be felt.

It, however, needs to be watched regularly as the story keeps unfolding," said Tawanda Gumbie an avid fan who watches the soap. AllAfrica publishes around reports a day from more than news organizations and over other institutions and individualsrepresenting a diversity of positions on every topic. We publish news and views ranging from vigorous opponents of governments to government publications and spokespersons.

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zimbabwean communities set the diversity wheel in motion

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